Speech and Hearing Glossary

    1. Air Conduction Testing: Hearing test where sound is transmitted via the outer, middle, and inner ear to determine thresholds (lowest level sound is perceived at least 50% of the time) between frequencies 250 Hz – 8000 Hz through the use of circumaural headphones, insert headphones, or speakers.
    2. Bone Conduction Testing: A small oscillator/vibrator is placed either on the mastoid bone behind the ear or on the forehead that transmits sound through the bones of the skull directly to the inner ear, bypassing any outer or middle ear involvement to determine threshold.
    3. Conditioned Play Audiometry (CPA): Allows an audiologist to test the hearing of very young toddlers and preschoolers. CPA uses behavioral conditioning to get children to respond to sounds delivered via matched loud speakers. It is designed for children between 2 or 3 and 5 years of age. Typically a child is conditioned to respond to sound by placing blocks in a box or rings on a peg.
    4. Educational Audiology: Over 65 NJ school districts have referred their students to Speech & Hearing Associates for peripheral and/or central auditory processing assessment (CAE and/or CAP Evaluation). Following the evaluation and parental consultation, we communicate with case managers, teachers and other school staff working with the student to discuss our results to assist the school in developing the best treatment plan for the student, including classroom management. If appropriate, this may involve assistance with FM systems, management of hearing aids, and modification of classroom acoustics; all designed to achieve maximum educational success.
    5. Immittance Testing (Tympanometry, Stapedial Reflexes): A probe that forms a hermetic seal at the opening of the external auditory canal (ear canal), is used to transmit air pressure to check the integrity of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and provides an objective result of middle ear function.
    6. Otoacoustic Emissions (OAE): OAE’s are inaudible sounds given off by the hair cells inside the the cochlea (inner ear), when stimulated with sound. These sounds are measured using a small probe that sits just inside the ear canal. Those with normal hearing typically produce robust otoacoustic emissions. Those with hearing loss of a mild degree or greater, do not produce these sounds.
    7. QuickSIN: A speech-in-noise test used to evaluate the ability to understand speech in the presence of background noise when speech is presented at a comfortable listening level.
    8. Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA): Also known as Conditioned Orientation Response, VRA is used typically with a child aged 5 or 6 months to 2 years. The response to sound presented via loud speakers involves the child turning his or her head toward the source of a sound. When the child responds appropriately by turning toward the sound, he or she is rewarded by a visual stimulus such as seeing a toy move or light up.